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Fluorescence Microscopy of Organic Semi-conducting Materials: From Single Molecules to Aggregates

Aggregates are groups of molecules that lie close together (typically within ~ 4 Å) in either well-ordered or disordered stacks. As a result, they interact with one another so strongly that the energies of their electronic states are different from those of the isolated molecules. These changes are seen as wavelength shifts in their absorption and emission spectra. Analysis of these changes yields information about the stacking arrangement of the molecules within the aggregate.